Paneer, an indigenous dairy product, to preserve milk solid
Pravin Kumar, P.K. Singh; Awadhesh Kishore* and Rakhi Sharma**
Raja Balwant Singh College, Bichpuri-283 105, Agra (INDIA)
*Sarvoday Mahavidyalaya, Chaumuhan-281406, Mathura (INDIA)
**Institute for Development of Technology for Rural Advancement, Mathura-281004 (INDIA)
India is highest milk producer in the world. Paneer occupies a significant position in Indian diet. About 5% of total milk is preserved as paneer. Buffalo milk having 5% fat is ‘good’ whereas cow milk ‘inferior’ for paneer production, to meet PFA standard. Paneer made from cow milk is too soft, fragile and its pieces lose their identity while cooking.
Buffalo milk, Coagulation, Cow milk, India, Indigenous dairy product, Milk production, Milk products, Milk solid, Paneer, PFA standard, Preservation.
The Indian dairy industry has undergone globalization as a result of formation of World Trade Organization (WTO) and implementation of the WTO agreement. India has emerged as the highest milk producing nation in the world. The higher growth rate of milk production now compares with that of major milk product exporting nations. At this juncture, the country will be facing a great challenge of stiff competition particularly from the western countries in the International market. For overcoming this challenge, particularly in Far East and Middle East countries the nation must be in a position to offer novel dairy products, which are different from the western dairy products and having hygienic with longer shelf life.
Indigenous dairy products are quite capable of becoming such novelty products provided, hygienic and keeping quality of these products are subjected for further improvement.
Amongst various indigenous milk products, paneer occupies a significant position in Indian diet. Paneer is a popular indigenous variety of soft cheese, which is obtained by the acid-cum-heat coagulation of milk at high temperature. The phenomenon of coagulation involves the formation of large structural aggregates of protein in which milk fat and other colloidal and soluble solids are entrained with whey. It has been revealed through ultra microscopy that paneer has granular structure consisting of protein particles having a core and lining irrespective of the types of milk used and a similar to any other milk product obtained by coagulating hot milk with acid to a pH in the vicinity of 5.5 (Kalab et al., 1988).
About 5 per cent of the total milk produced in the country is diverted towards paneer manufacture mostly through unorganized sector. Paneer is highly popular milk product and being used for preparation of various culinary dishes. Paneer consists of milk protein and usually nearly all fat, insoluble salt and colloidal materials together with part of the moisture of serum of original milk in which are contained lactose, whey proteins, soluble salts, vitamins and other milk components.
Good quality paneer is characterized by a typical acidic flavor with slightly sweet taste. It has firm, cohesive and spongy body and closely knit, smooth texture. Paneer is a highly nutritious wholesome food and is one of the best methods of conserving milk solids in highly concentrated form. The production of paneer has many advantages over other dairy products. The technology of manufacturing and handling of paneer is relatively simple. The equipment required is relatively less sophisticated, less costly and could easily be adapted to manufacture other allied product such as different kinds of cheese, channa, curd, yogurt etc. Moreover, the manufacturing process of paneer is so less time consuming that considerable amount of milk could be handled in a day. The economics of paneer manufacture work out to be more favorable as compared to fluid milk and other products. (Sachdeva and Singh, 1995).
To meet the PFA requirement (PFA, 1983) for paneer, a minimum of 5.8 per cent fat in buffalo having 9.5 per cent SNF is essential. A fat:SNF ratio 1 : 1.65 has to be maintained in order to manufacture good quality paneer. Buffalo milk having more than 5 per cent fat is being considered as ‘good’ for paneer production which meets the PFA standard easily. On the other hand, cow milk paneer is of inferior quality as it is too soft, fragile and its pieces lose their identity on cooking. It is claimed that milk fat in the range of 5.6 per cent is required to ensure quality of paneer as this levels of fat produce paneer soft and mellow.
Kalab, M.; Gupta, S.K.; Desai, H.K. and Patil, G.R. 1988. Development of ultra structure in raw, fried and cooked paneer made from buffalo, cow and mixed milk. Food Microstructure, 7, 83-91.
PFA, 1983. Commentraies on the prevention of feed Adulteration Rules 1954. 4th Ed. Asia Law House, Hyderabad.
Sachdeva, S. and Singh S. 1995. Industrial production of paneer innovation approaches. Indian Dairyman, 47, 11-14.