Communication is a word of Latin origin, it means sharing of information or intelligence. The most common medium of communication is language. While speaking we often resort to physical gestures. We wave our hands, shrug our shoulders, smile and nod to reinforce what we say. Besides, there are several other means of communication available to us. We use non-linguistic symbols such as traffic lights, road signs, railway signals to convey information relating to the movement of vehicles and trains. We also use telegraphic code for quick transmission of messages and secret codes for communicating in defense and other highly confidential information. For communication all these codes are valid in their special frames or reference.
Communication is a process, the main components of which are sender, message, channel, receiver and response. The first thing to notice is that in every communication situation there are two parties a sender and a receiver, who interact within a common frame of reference. Without a common background, purpose and interest there can be no effective communication.
Another important factor in the communication process is the existence of co-operation between the sender and the receiver. If u speak to a person who is totally lost in his thoughts or use a language he does not understand, no communication will take place. Communication in fact is a function and each community develops a common medium for the purpose. The medium may consist of a language or code- asset of symbols which stands for certain ideas, feeling, notions, things etc. To encode a message, relevant symbols are selected and arranged into a pattern to convey meaning.
The choice of the channel and the type of symbols is determined by the situation. When addressing a conference of research workers a scientist uses technical languages. He speaks distinctly and makes suitable gestures to drive home his points. On the other hand, when he talks to his wife and children he uses simple language and speaks in a informal manner. When the sender transmits a message he expects a response. The response may be immediate or differed, favorable or unfavorable. He may, for instance, send a letter of congratulations to a friend in his success in an exam and receive an immediate reply. On another occasion, an application for leave may not be granted. But for this reason it has not ceased to be a communication, only it has not produced the desired response.