A vehicle model (or vehicle model or type of vehicle, and frequently abbreviated to simply “model”) is really a particular make of vehicle offered within marque with a manufacturer, usually within a variety of models, usually of various dimensions or abilities. From an engineering perspective, a specific vehicle model is generally defined and/or restricted through a specific vehicle chassis/bodywork combination or even the same monocoque, although sometimes this isn’t the situation, and also the model signifies an advertising and marketing segment.
This engineering frame might have types, giving rise to several body style for the vehicle model. For instance, exactly the same model could be offered like a four-door sedan (saloon), a 2-door coupé, a station wagon (estate), or even while a folding-roof convertible, all based on basically exactly the same engineering frame. A good example of this is actually the BMW 3-series.
Exactly the same vehicle model could be offered with various mechanical internals, like a selection of several engine dimensions, automatic or manual transmissions, different suspension, stopping or steering systems, etc. many of these options considered fairly interchangeable on that exact body frame. It’s quite common for just about any specific vehicle model to hold additional badges or letterings to announce the mechanical option(s) incorporated onto it.
However, once the same engineering body frame is offered within different marque or with a partner car maker, it always becomes, from the commercial perspective, another vehicle model. See badge engineering.
Sometimes the marketing department can provide each body style variant its very own trade title, creating as numerous vehicle models as body variants, despite the fact that they might share a sizable parts commonality and also the engineering department will continue to consider them a part of exactly the same project. A good example of this is actually the Volkswagen Golf hatchback and also the Volkswagen Jetta, that is of “three-box” design having a boot/trunk put into what’s basically a Golf.
On the other hand, the marketing department may advertise a vehicle model like a convenient derivative of some popular vehicle, much more realization they might be different engineering projects with very little parts commonality, or from varying decades from the model. (For instance, convertibles are frequently so heavily designed, for any relatively few sales, that the elderly model is facelifted and transported forward with a brand new generation from the model’s other body styles.)however this could also mean that it may change several things.
Exactly the same vehicle model might be offered through the car maker in various nations under different names. A good example of this is actually the Mitsubishi Pajero / Montero.
Formerly, car manufacturers (especially American) had offered several options to provide clients much versatility, however it has largely been thrown away in support of trim levels (also called grades and often as option packages), that provides manufacturing and marketing simplicity.
One might be offered in different trim levels, which denotes different designs of normal equipment and amenities. For example, the bottom trim might have only fundamental features (wheel covers, cloth seats) in comparison up-of-the-line model (alloy wheels, leather upholstery).
A regular stick shift having a clutch pedal is frequently considered standard equipment, while automated transmissions (automatic transmission including manumatics, continuous variable transmissions (CVTs), and semi-automatic transmissions including Dual clutch transmissions) are often treated as options. The bottom engine in, say a midsize vehicle or crossover Vehicle from the mainstream manufacturer, is generally a four cylinder (inline-4) as the upgrade is really a V6. Frequently, certain features and packages are just available in conjunction with the greater effective engines in the vehicle selection.
Some stand-alone options might not be a part of packages, including factory options like a moonroof or electronic stability control, and dealer options like a roof rack and hood deflector. The word “option” is sort of misleading, as automobiles are frequently sent in the factory towards the car dealership getting several popular options as p facto-standard equipment. For example, most stock types of entry-level luxury cars on dealer lots contain leather upholstery along with a moonroof, because the base vehicle without these amenities (referred to as a “stripper”) is generally available only by special order in the factory (frequently for fleet use such for taxicabs). Companies and shops follow this practice since thinking about these functions as options is much more lucrative than raising the cost from the model and including these as “standard” equipment. A remove choice is something that the client can order to not be incorporated within the vehicle, as opposed to the opposite.
It’s quite common for just about any specific vehicle model to hold additional badges or lettering to announce its trim level. For instance, the Toyota Camry’s trim levels: Camry CE (Classic Edition), Camry LE (Luxury Edition), and Camry XLE (Extra Luxury Edition). Other producers prefer names instead of alphanueric initials for trim levels the Renault Scénic range includes entry-level trim badged Renault Scénic Authentique, the following model up badged Renault Scénic Expression, then Renault Scénic Dynamique and lastly the posh Renault Scénic Privilège. The Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution’s trim levels from Evolution I to Evolution X include: RS for Rally Sport GSR for Grand Sport Rally SE for Exclusive Edition MR for Mitsubishi Racing and GT-A for Grand Touring- Automatic (note: GT-A for Evolution VII only SE for Evolution IX only and MR for Evolution VIII-present). Frequently the very best-of-the-line engine within the selection features exclusive badging (V12 badges feature around the 2010 BMW 760Li), while certain producers have frequently because of the choice to clients to get rid of the badging in the vehicle.
The greatest trim level may also be viewed as slightly taken off the relaxation from the range. For example the BMW M high-performance variant is frequently promoted individually in the regular selection. Ford typically sells a Ghia luxury model over the models designated by initials. Rover used the title of the former coachbuilder, Vanden Plas. Could also be a higher-performance version, like a GT.
Offering a range of body styles, mechanical specifications and trim levels allow producers to focus on exactly the same vehicle model to various market niches. For instance, an affordable base trim three-door hatchback is specific at drivers on a tight budget for example students, as the mid-range sedan using the comfort package may suit the requirements of a middle-aged family, and also the costly high-performance variant may catch the attention from the sportier-minded auto enthusiast, all the three variants discussing exactly the same nameplate having a common platform and engineering. A good example of this is actually the Ford Focus.
Frequently within the later model many years of a specific generation of car, there has been “special models” to chop lower on the amount of options as production winds lower, like the 2009 Mercedes-Benz E-Class Avantgarde Edition and also the 2011 BMW 323i Luxury Edition.
A vehicle model might be further subdivided into model years, all cars from the particular model year discussing roughly exactly the same qualities (because of the same trim level, body style, engine option, etc.) but not with variations from others of the different model year.
Within this context, a facelift (also called a mid-generational refresh or minor model update) may update a maturing vehicle model, usually with exterior or interior cosmetic changes, and often powertrain changes-but with no major platform engineering revision that might be pricey for that car maker. This produces a so-known as “second series” of this particular model, and often becoming the chance for any marketing re-launch of the identical vehicle.
Many occasions a manufacturer decides to totally redesign the vehicle, however with the goal of providing the new model towards the same specific public or perhaps in exactly the same market niche, keeping it similarly listed and promoted against its usual rivals using their company producers. The vehicle is generally considered another model through the engineering department, transporting another model designator, but, for marketing reasons, it’s provided to the customers with similar old, traditional, familiar title. A good example of this is actually the Chevrolet Corvettes.
Total production run for any given vehicle is generally calculated concerning the engineering project title or designator. The marketing department may advertise figures for any continuous-production tradename rather, divided in so-known as “decades”. However, for presidency or sport regulating reasons, each body-style/mechanical-configuration combination might be counted like a different model.